The number of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) is increasing worldwide. To identify novel characteristics of GDM, we studied miRNA profiles of maternal and fetal whole blood cells (WBCs) from GDM and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) pregnant women matched for body mass index and maternal age. After adjustment for maternal weight gain and pregnancy week, we identified 29 mature micro-RNAs (miRNAs) up-regulated in GDM, one of which, i.e., miRNA-340, was validated by qPCR. mRNA and protein expression of PAIP1, a miRNA-340 target gene, was found down-regulated in GDM women, accordingly. In lymphocytes derived from the mothers' blood and treated in vitro, insulin increased and glucose reduced miRNA-340 expression. In fetal cord blood samples, no associations of miRNA-340 with maternal GDM were observed. Our results provide evidence for insulin-induced epigenetic, i.e., miRNA-dependent, programming of maternal WBCs in GDM.