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Biological effects of four iron-containing nanoremediation materials on the green alga Chlamydomonas sp.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 154, 36-44 (2018)
As nanoremediation strategies for in-situ groundwater treatment extend beyond nanoiron-based applications to adsorption and oxidation, ecotoxicological evaluations of newly developed materials are required. The biological effects of four new materials with different iron (Fe) speciations ([i] FerMEG12 - pristine Flake-like milled Fe(0) nanoparticles (nZVI), [ii] Carbo-Iron(center dot) - Fe(0)-nanoclusters containing activated carbon (AC) composite, [iii] Trap-Ox(center dot) Fe-BEA35 (Fe-zeolite) - Fe-doped zeolite, and [iv] Nano-Goethite - 'pure' FeOOH) were studied using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas sp. as a model test system. Algal growth rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, efficiency of photosystem II, membrane integrity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed following exposure to 10, 50 and 500 mg L-1 of the particles for 2 h and 24 h. The particles had a concentration-, material- and time-dependent effect on Chlamydomonas sp., with increased algal growth rate after 24 h. Conversely, significant intracellular ROS levels were detected after 2 h, with much lower levels after 24 h. All Fe-nanomaterials displayed similar Z-average sizes and zeta-potentials at 2 h and 24 h. Effects on Chlamydomonas sp. decreased in the order FerMEG12 > Carbo-Iron(center dot) > Fe-zeolite > Nano-Goethite. Ecotoxicological studies were challenged due to some particle properties, i.e. dark colour, effect of constituents and a tendency to agglomerate, especially at high concentrations. All particles exhibited potential to induce significant toxicity at high concentrations (500 mg L-1), though such concentrations would rapidly decrease to mg or mu g L-1 in aquatic environments, levels harmless to Chlamydomonas sp. The presented findings contribute to the practical usage of particle-based nanoremediation in environmental restoration.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Biological Effect ; Fermeg12 ; Carbo-iron ; Trap-ox Fe-zeolite ; Nano-goethite ; Chlamydomonas Sp.; Groundwater Treatment; Oxide Nanoparticles; Oxidative Stress; Carbo-iron; Valent; Reinhardtii; Toxicity; Water; Nanomaterials; Fluorescence
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0147-6513
Quellenangaben Volume: 154, Pages: 36-44
Publishing Place San Diego
Reviewing status Peer reviewed
Institute(s) Institute of Groundwater Ecology (IGOE)