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Oshima, M.* ; Knoch, K.-P. ; Diedisheim, M.* ; Petzold, A. ; Cattan, P.* ; Bugliani, M.* ; Marchetti, P.* ; Choudhary, P.* ; Huang, G.C.* ; Bornstein, S.R.* ; Solimena, M. ; Albagli-Curiel, O.* ; Scharfmann, R.*

Virus-like infection induces human β cell dedifferentiation.

JCI insight 3:97732 (2018)
Publ. Version/Full Text DOI
Open Access Gold
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disease characterized by an autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Environmental factors such as viruses play an important role in the onset of T1D and interact with predisposing genes. Recent data suggest that viral infection of human islets leads to a decrease in insulin production rather than β cell death, suggesting loss of β cell identity. We undertook this study to examine whether viral infection could induce human β cell dedifferentiation. Using the functional human β cell line EndoC-βH1, we demonstrate that polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C), a synthetic double-stranded RNA that mimics a byproduct of viral replication, induces a decrease in β cell-specific gene expression. In parallel with this loss, the expression of progenitor-like genes such as SOX9 was activated following PolyI:C treatment or enteroviral infection. SOX9 was induced by the NF-κB pathway and also in a paracrine non-cell-autonomous fashion through the secretion of IFN-α. Lastly, we identified SOX9 targets in human β cells as potentially new markers of dedifferentiation in T1D. These findings reveal that inflammatory signaling has clear implications in human β cell dedifferentiation.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Beta Cells ; Diabetes ; Inflammation ; Nf-kappab ; Virology
ISSN (print) / ISBN 2379-3708
e-ISSN 2379-3708
Journal JCI insight
Quellenangaben Volume: 3, Issue: 3, Pages: , Article Number: 97732 Supplement: ,
Publisher Clarivate
Publishing Place Ann Arbor, Michigan
Reviewing status Peer reviewed
Institute(s) Institute for Pancreatic Beta Cell Research (IPI)