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Luek, J.L.* ; Harir, M. ; Schmitt-Kopplin, P. ; Mouser, P.J.* ; Gonsior, M.*

Temporal dynamics of halogenated organic compounds in Marcellus Shale flowback.

Water Res. 136, 200-206 (2018)
DOI
Open Access Green as soon as Postprint is submitted to ZB.
The chemistry of hydraulic fracturing fluids and wastewaters is complex and is known to vary by operator, geologic formation, and fluid age. A time series of hydraulic fracturing fluids, flowback fluids, and produced waters was collected from two adjacent Marcellus Shale gas wells for organic chemical composition analyses using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Hierarchical clustering was used to compare and extract ions related to different fluid ages and many halogenated organic molecular ions were identified in flowback fluids and early produced waters based on exact mass. Iodinated organic compounds were the dominant halogen class in these clusters and were nearly undetectable in hydraulic fracturing fluid prior to injection. The iodinated ions increased in flowback and remained elevated after ten months of well production. We suggest that these trends are mainly driven by dissolved organic matter reacting with reactive halogen species formed abiotically through oxidizing chemical additives applied to the well and biotically via iodide-oxidizing bacteria. Understanding the implications of these identified halogenated organic compounds will require future investigation in to their structures and environmental fate.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing ; Marcellus Shale ; Flowback Fluid ; Produced Water ; Halogenated Organic Compounds
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0043-1354
e-ISSN 1879-2448
Journal Water Research
Quellenangaben Volume: 136, Issue: , Pages: 200-206 Article Number: , Supplement: ,
Publisher Elsevier
Publishing Place Amsterdam [u.a.] ; Jena [u.a.]
Reviewing status Peer reviewed