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Emission of ultrafine copper particles by universal motors controlled by phase angle modulation.
J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 520-531 (2007)
Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the emission of particulate matter by electric universal motors controlled by phase angle modulation. The motor of a commercial professional vacuum cleaner (PVC) served as a standard source of the particles. Total number concentrations were measured with a condensation particle counter (CNC), number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and with a portable optical aerosol spectrometer (PAS). Impactor samples were collected to determine the size-segregated concentrations of mass and of copper. The total number concentration produced by the motor operated at full power input (Click to view the MathML source, rotational speed Click to view the MathML source) in a test room (volume Click to view the MathML source, air exchange rate Click to view the MathML source) saturates rapidly at Click to view the MathML source within 15 min of operation. The concentrations of the total mass and of copper were, at an air exchange rate of Click to view the MathML source, 146 and Click to view the MathML source, respectively. With a simple box model these concentrations correspond to emission rates of the motor of Click to view the MathML source, Click to view the MathML source of total mass and Click to view the MathML source of copper. When phase angle modulation was employed to reduce the power input of the motor, the number concentration was found to be nearly proportional to the jump in the applied voltage and the total number concentration increased by up to a factor of 5 at a rotational speed of Click to view the MathML source (power input Click to view the MathML source). The number size distributions indicated that the phase angle modulation increases mainly the emissions of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and the impactor samples suggest that these UFPs consist nearly entirely of copper.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Indoor exposure; Ultrafine particles; Particular copper; Universal motor; Phase angle modulation
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0021-8502
Zeitschrift Journal of Aerosol Science
Quellenangaben Band: 38, Heft: 5, Seiten: 520-531
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed
Institut(e) Institute of Radiation Protection (ISS)