Selenium is a trace element of both nutritional and toxicological interest, depending on its dose and chemical form. Diet is the primary source of exposure for most individuals. We sought to investigate the influence of food intake on serum levels of selenium species. Among fifty subjects randomly selected from a Northern Italian population, we assessed dietary habits using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We also measured circulating levels of selenium species in serum using high pressure liquid chromatography associated with inductively-coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer. Circulating levels of inorganic selenium, the most toxic selenium species, were positively associated with intake of fish, legumes and dry fruits, and inversely associated with intake of dairy products and mushrooms. Concerning the organic selenium species, selenoproteinP-bound selenium was inversely associated with intake of fish, fresh fruits, vegetables, and legumes, while selenocysteine-bound selenium positively associated with intake of fresh fruit, potato, legume and mushroom. In the present study, intakes of different foods were correlated with different types of selenium species. These results have important public health implications when assessing the nutritional and toxicological potential of diet composition with reference to selenium exposure.