T helper cell subsets orchestrate context- and pathogen-specific responses of the immune system. They mostly do so by secreting specific cytokines that attract or induce activation and differentiation of other immune or nonimmune cells. The differentiation of T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, T follicular helper, Th17, and induced regulatory T cell subsets from naive T cells depends on the activation of intracellular signal transduction cascades. These cascades originate from T cell receptor and costimulatory receptor engagement and also receive critical input from cytokine receptors that sample the cytokine milieu within secondary lymphoid organs. Signal transduction then leads to the expression of subset-specifying transcription factors that, in concert with other transcription factors, up-regulate downstream signature genes. Although regulation of transcription is important, recent research has shown that posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulation can critically shape or even determine the outcome of Th cell differentiation. In this review, we describe how specific microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, RNA-binding proteins, and ubiquitin-modifying enzymes regulate their targets to skew cell fate decisions.