Di-(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP) is used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride products. A tolerable daily intake of DPHP of 0.2 mg/kg body weight has been derived from rat data. Because toxicokinetic data of DPHP in humans were not available, it was the aim of the present work to monitor DPHP and selected metabolites in blood and urine of 6 male volunteers over time following ingestion of a single DPHP dose (0.7 mg/kg body weight). Concentration-time courses in blood were obtained up to 24 h for DPHP, mono-(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (MPHP), mono-(2-propyl-6-hydroxyheptyl) phthalate (OH-MPHP), and mono-(2-propyl-6-oxoheptyl) phthalate (oxo-MPHP); amounts excreted in urine were determined up to 46 h for MPHP, OH-MPHP, oxo-MPHP, and mono-(2-propyl-6-carboxyhexyl) phthalate (cx-MPHP). All curves were characterized by an invasion and an elimination phase the kinetic parameters of which were determined together with the areas under the concentration-time curves in blood (AUCs). AUCs were: DPHP > MPHP > oxo-MPHP > OH-MPHP. The amounts excreted in urine were: oxo-MPHP > OH-MPHP> > cx-MPHP > MPHP. The AUCs of MPHP, oxo-MPHP, or OH-MPHP could be estimated well from the cumulative amounts of urinary OH-MPHP or oxo-MPHP excreted within 22 h after DPHP intake. Not considering possible differences in species-sensitivity towards unconjugated DPHP metabolites, it was concluded from a comparison of their AUCs in DPHP-exposed humans with corresponding earlier data in rats that there is no increased risk of adverse effects associated with the internal exposure of unconjugated DPHP metabolites in humans as compared to rats when receiving the same dose of DPHP per kg body weight.