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Verbrugge, S.A.J.* ; Schönfelder, M.* ; Becker, L. ; Nezhad, F.Y.* ; Hrabě de Angelis, M. ; Wackerhage, H.*

Genes whose gain or loss-of-function increases skeletal muscle mass in mice: A systematic literature review.

Front. Physiol. 9:553 (2018)
Publ. Version/Full Text Research data DOI
Open Access Gold
Creative Commons Lizenzvertrag
Skeletal muscle mass differs greatly in mice and humans and this is partially inherited. To identify muscle hypertrophy candidate genes we conducted a systematic review to identify genes whose experimental loss or gain-of-function results in significant skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice. We found 47 genes that meet our search criteria and cause muscle hypertrophy after gene manipulation. They are from high to small effect size: Ski, Fst, Acvr2b, Akt1, Mstn, Klf10, Rheb, Igf1, Pappa, Ppard, Ikbkb, Fstl3, Atgr1a, Ucn3, Mcu, Junb, Ncor1, Gprasp1, Grb10, Mmp9, Dgkz, Ppargc1a (specifically the Ppargc1a4 isoform), Smad4, Ltbp4, Bmpr1a, Crtc2, Xiap, Dgat1, Thra, Adrb2, Asb15, Cast, Eif2b5, Bdkrb2, Tpt1, Nr3c1, Nr4a1, Gnas, Pld1, Crym, Camkk1, Yap1, Inhba, Tp53inp2, Inhbb, Nol3, Esr1. Knock out, knock down, overexpression or a higher activity of these genes causes overall muscle hypertrophy as measured by an increased muscle weight or cross sectional area. The mean effect sizes range from 5 to 345% depending on the manipulated gene as well as the muscle size variable and muscle investigated. Bioinformatical analyses reveal that Asb15, Klf10, Tpt1 are most highly expressed hypertrophy genes in human skeletal muscle when compared to other tissues. Many of the muscle hypertrophy-regulating genes are involved in transcription and ubiquitination. Especially genes belonging to three signaling pathways are able to induce hypertrophy: (a) Igf1-Akt-mTOR pathway, (b) myostatin-Smad signaling, and (c) the angiotensin-bradykinin signaling pathway. The expression of several muscle hypertrophy-inducing genes and the phosphorylation of their protein products changes after human resistance and high intensity exercise, in maximally stimulated mouse muscle or in overloaded mouse plantaris.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Review
Keywords Gene Manipulation ; Gwas ; Hypertrophy ; Mutation ; Myostatin ; Resistance Exercise ; Sarcopenia ; Skeletal Muscle
ISSN (print) / ISBN 1664-042X
e-ISSN 1664-042X
Quellenangaben Volume: 9, Issue: MAY, Pages: , Article Number: 553 Supplement: ,
Publisher Frontiers
Publishing Place Lausanne
Reviewing status Peer reviewed