Fibroblasts play an important role in lung homeostasis and disease. In lung fibrosis, fibroblasts adopt a proliferative and migratory phenotype, with increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA) and enhanced secretion of extracellular matrix components. Comprehensive profiling of fibroblast heterogeneity is limited because of a lack of specific cell-surface markers. We have previously profiled the surface proteome of primary human lung fibroblasts. Here, we sought to define and quantify a panel of cluster of differentiation (CD) markers in primary human lung fibroblasts and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue, using immunofluorescence and FACS analysis. Fibroblast function was assessed by analysis of replicative senescence. We observed the presence of distinct fibroblast phenotypes in vivo, characterized by various combinations of Desmin, alpha SMA, CD36, or CD97 expression. Most markers demonstrated stable expression over passages in vitro, but significant changes were observed for CD36, CD54, CD82, CD106, and CD140a. Replicative senescence of fibroblasts was observed from passage 10 onward. CD36- and CD97-positive but alpha SMA-negative cells were present in remodeled areas of IPF lungs. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta treatment induced alpha SMA and collagen I expression but repressed CD36 and CD97 expression. We identified a panel of stable surface markers in human lung fibroblasts, applicable for positive-cell isolation directly from lung tissue. TGF-beta exposure represses CD36 and CD97 expression, despite increasing alpha SMA expression; we therefore identified complex surface protein changes during fibroblast-myofibroblast activation. Coexistence of quiescence and activated fibroblast subtypes in the IPF lung suggests dynamic remodeling of fibroblast activation upon subtle changes to growth factor exposure in local microenvironmental niches.