Whether exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in children is unclear. Using data from Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in childhood (ISAAC), we investigated associations of rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence in adolescents with model-based estimates of ozone, and satellite-based estimates of fine (diameter < 2.5 μm) particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO). Information on rhinoconjunctivitis (defined as self-reported nose symptoms without a cold or flu accompanied by itchy watery eyes in the past 12 months) was available on 505,400 children aged 13-14 years, in 183 centres in 83 countries. Centre-level prevalence estimates were calculated and linked geographically with estimates of long-term average concentrations of NO, ozone and PM. Multi-level models were fitted adjusting for population density, climate, sex and gross national income. Information on parental smoking, truck traffic and cooking fuel was available for a restricted set of centres (77 in 36 countries). Between centres within countries, the estimated change in rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence per 100 children was 0.171 (95% confidence interval: - 0.013, 0.354) per 10% increase in PM, 0.096 (- 0.003, 0.195) per 10% increase in NO and - 0.186 (- 0.390, 0.018) per 1 ppbV increase in ozone. Between countries, rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence was significantly negatively associated with both ozone and PM. In the restricted dataset, the latter association became less negative following adjustment for parental smoking and open fires for cooking. In conclusion, there were no significant within-country associations of rhinoconjunctivitis prevalence with study pollutants. Negative between-country associations with PM and ozone require further investigation.