High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is a commonly used therapy applied to neonates requiring ventilatory support during their first weeks of life. Despite its wide application, the underlying gas exchange mechanisms promoting the success of HVOF in neonatal care are not fully understood until today. In this work, a highly resolved computational lung model, derived from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Infant Lung Function Testing (ILFT), is used to reveal the reason for highly efficient gas exchange during HFOV, in the preterm infant. In total we detected six mechanisms that facilitate gas exchange during HFOV: (i) turbulent vortices in large airways; (ii) asymmetric in-and expiratory flow profiles; (iii) radial mixing in main bronchi; (iv) laminar flow in higher generations of the respiratory tract; (v) pendelluft; (vi) direct ventilation of central alveoli. The illustration of six specific gas transport phenomena during HFOV in preterm infants advances general knowledge on protective ventilation in neonatal care and can support decisions on various modes of ventilatory therapy at high frequencies.