Sarcopenia in geriatric patients is often associated with or even caused by changes of the endocrine and nervous system. The multifactorial pathogenesis of sarcopenia and additional multimorbidity in geriatric patients makes it difficult to study distinct pathogenic pathways leading to sarcopenia. Patients suffering from diabetes, Cushing's syndrome, chronic kidney disease, Klinefelter's syndrome or motor neuron diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis for example are known to have impaired muscle property and reduced physical performance. These patients are typically younger and suffer from conditions caused by a known molecular disease mechanism and a peculiar sarcopenic phenotype. Therefore, these sequelae can serve as prototypic disease models to study isolated endocrinological and neurodegenerative causes for sarcopenia. This review focuses on diseases whose etiopathogenesis of muscle impairment is known. The idea is to use these diseases as proof of principles to develop a classification algorithm of sarcopenia in the elderly to make a more mechanism-oriented therapy be possible.