The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cerium content in human breast milk and blood plasma or serum. Blood samples and breast milk at various stages of lactation, from 5 days to 51 weeks post partum, were donated by 42 healthy breast-feeding mothers from Munich, Germany and by 26 lactating Spanish mothers from Madrid at 4 weeks post partum. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was applied for the determination of cerium in the biological samples. Cerium concentration in the digested milk samples from Munich showed low values and the arithmetic mean values ranged between the quantification limit of 5 ng/L up to 65 ng/L. The median value amounted to 13 ng/L. The cerium concentrations in the Spanish breast milk samples amounted to similar low values. The data were about a factor of eight lower than values found in a former study of samples from an eastern German province. All cerium concentrations in the German plasma samples, except for two, were at the quantification limit of 10 ng/L. Interestingly, the serum samples of the Spanish mothers showed cerium values ranging between 21.6 and 70.3 ng/L; these higher data could be explained by an enhanced intake of cerium by humans in Madrid. This could be caused by increased cerium concentrations in particulate matter due to a higher traffic volume in Madrid compared to Munich. The results obtained in this study contribute to setting reference baseline values of cerium in human breast milk and blood plasma/serum and indicate a varying cerium amount depending on the cerium environmental pollution. Possibly, the cerium content in plasma/serum could be an indicator for environmental cerium, which is not valid for breast milk.