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Mast cells as protectors of health.

J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., accepted (2018)
Postprint online available 12/2019 Open Access Green as soon as is submitted to ZB.
© 2018 The Authors Mast cells (MCs), which are well known for their effector functions in TH2-skewed allergic and also autoimmune inflammation, have become increasingly acknowledged for their role in protection of health. It is now clear that they are also key modulators of immune responses at interface organs, such as the skin or gut. MCs can prime tissues for adequate inflammatory responses and cooperate with dendritic cells in T-cell activation. They also regulate harmful immune responses in trauma and help to successfully orchestrate pregnancy. This review focuses on the beneficial effects of MCs on tissue homeostasis and elimination of toxins or venoms. MCs can enhance pathogen clearance in many bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, such as through Toll-like receptor 2–triggered degranulation, secretion of antimicrobial cathelicidins, neutrophil recruitment, or provision of extracellular DNA traps. The role of MCs in tumors is more ambiguous; however, encouraging new findings show they can change the tumor microenvironment toward antitumor immunity when adequately triggered. Uterine tissue remodeling by α-chymase (mast cell protease [MCP] 5) is crucial for successful embryo implantation. MCP-4 and the tryptase MCP-6 emerge to be protective in central nervous system trauma by reducing inflammatory damage and excessive scar formation, thereby protecting axon growth. Last but not least, proteases, such as carboxypeptidase A, released by FcεRI-activated MCs detoxify an increasing number of venoms and endogenous toxins. A better understanding of the plasticity of MCs will help improve these advantageous effects and hint at ways to cut down detrimental MC actions.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Review
Keywords Central Nervous System Trauma ; Infection ; Innate Immunity ; Mast Cell ; Mast Cell Protease ; Pregnancy ; Toxin ; Tumor ; Venom
Reviewing status