Gliomas are primary brain tumors that present the majority of malignant adult brain tumors. Gliomas are subdivided into low- and high-grade tumors. Despite extensive research in recent years, the prognosis of malignant glioma patients remains poor. This is caused by naturally highly infiltrative capacities as well as high levels of radio- and chemoresistance. Additionally, it was shown that low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation enhances migration and invasion of several glioma entities which might counteract today's treatment concepts. However, this finding is discussed controversially. In the era of personalized medicine, this controversial data might be attributed to the patient-specific heterogeneity that ultimately could be used for treatment. Thus, current developments in glioma therapy should be seen in the context of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced migration and invasion. Due to the natural heterogeneity of glioma cells and different radiation responses, a personalized radiation treatment concept is suggested and alternative radiation concepts are discussed.