It is widely assumed that biodegradation of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems occurs via a cometabolic transformation with dissolved organic carbon serving as primary substrate. Hence, the composition facilitating bioavailability of the organic matter seems to have a great impact on TOrCs transformation in MAR systems. The aim of this study was to elucidate the character of effluent organic matter present in the feedwater of a simulated sequential MAR system throughout the infiltration by use of FT-ICR-MS analyses as well as spectroscopic methods. Furthermore, compositional changes were correlated with TOrCs targeted throughout the system as well as the abundance of different microbial phyla. On the basis of their behavior throughout the infiltration system in which different redox and substrate conditions prevailed, TOrCs were classified in four groups: easily degradable, redox insensitive, redox sensitive, and persistent. Masses correlating with persistent TOrCs were mainly comprised of CHNO-containing molecules but also of CHO which are known as carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules, while CHOS and CHNOS can be neglected. Easily degradable TOrCs could be associated with CHNO-, CHO-, and CHOS-containing compounds. However, a shift of molecular compounds to mostly CHOS was observed for redox-insensitive TOrCs. Three hundred thirty eight masses correlated with removal of redox-sensitive TOrCs, but no distinct clustering was identified.