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Fick, A.* ; Jünemann, A.* ; Michalke, B. ; Lucio, M. ; Hohberger, B.*

Levels of serum trace elements in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 53, 129-134 (2019)
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PURPOSE: Glaucoma disease is known as multifactorial. Trace elements seemed to be linked via oxidative stress mediated changes to the complex glaucoma pathophysiology. Thus, it was the aim of this study to investigate serum levels of trace elements in primary open-angle glaucoma patients (POAG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral venous blood samples were taken from a total of 40 subjects: 22 primary open-angle glaucoma patients (mean age 58.1 ± 13.9, female 8, male 14) and 18 controls (mean age 38.9 ± 11.6, 6 female 6, male 12). Serum samples of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc were analyzed by Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (Cu, Fe, Zn) and Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-sectorfield-Mass-Spectrometry (Cd, Co, Mn, Pb, Se). Data were analyzed using ANCOVA and presented as log transformed LS-mean. RESULTS: Patients with POAG had significantly increased serum levels of iron (2.98 ± 0.03 μg/L vs 2.98 ± 0.03 μg/L) when compared to controls, and of cadmium (1.57 ± 0.05 ng/L vs. 1.40 ± 0.06 ng/L) considering the interaction between age and the class variable (control versus POAG). A gender effect was seen for cadmium, cobalt, copper, and iron in controls and POAG patients. Iron concentration was reduced in dependency of age for both genders in normals, however lesser in POAG patients. No difference was seen in serum levels of lead, manganese, and zinc between patients with POAG and controls. CONCLUSION: A significant elevation of serum cadmium and iron levels in POAG patients as well as an additional gender effect of cadmium, cobalt, copper, and iron in normals and POAG patients, may argue for a potential role of these trace elements in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Cadmium ; Cobalt ; Copper ; Glaucoma ; Iron ; Trace Elements
Reviewing status