The relationship between the worsening of air quality during the colder season of the year and respiratory health problems among the exposed population in many countries located in cold climates has been well documented in numerous studies. Silesian Voivodeship, a region located in southern Poland, is one of the most polluted regions in Europe. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between daily concentration of particulate matter (PM: PM2.5 and PM10) in ambient air and exacerbations of respiratory diseases during the period from 1 January 2016 to 31 August 2017 in the central agglomeration area of Silesian Voivodeship. The study results confirmed a significant increase of daily fine particulate matter concentration in ambient air during the cold season in Silesian Voivodeship with a simultaneous increase of the number of outpatient visits and hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases. The moving average concentration was better suited for the modelling of biological response as a result of PM2.5 or PM10 exposure than the temporal lag of health effects. Each increase of dose expressed in the form of moving average concentration over a longer time leads to an increase in the daily number of respiratory effects. The highest risk of hospitalization due to respiratory diseases was related to longer exposure of PM expressed by two to four weeks of exposure; outpatient visits was related to a shorter exposure duration of 3 days.