Pipecolic acid (Pip) is an essential component of systemic acquired resistance, priming resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana against (hemi) biotrophic pathogens. Here, we studied the potential role of Pip in bacteria-induced systemic immunity in barley. Exudates of barley leaves infected with the systemic immunity-inducing pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. japonica induced immune responses in A. thaliana. The same leaf exudates contained elevated Pip levels compared with those of mock-treated barley leaves. Exogenous application of Pip induced resistance in barley against the hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis. Furthermore, both a systemic immunity-inducing infection and exogenous application of Pip enhanced the resistance of barley against the biotrophic powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. In contrast to a systemic immunity-inducing infection, Pip application did not influence lesion formation by a systemically applied inoculum of the necrotrophic fungus Pyrenophora teres. Nitric oxide (NO) levels in barley leaves increased after Pip application. Furthermore, X. translucens pv. cerealis induced the accumulation of superoxide anion radicals and this response was stronger in Pip-pretreated compared with mock-pretreated plants. Thus, the data suggest that Pip induces barley innate immune responses by triggering NO and priming reactive oxygen species accumulation.