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Metabolic diversity conveyed by the process leading to glutathione accumulation in inactivated dry yeast: A synthetic media study.
Food Res. Int. 123, 762-770 (2019)
Glutathione-rich inactivated dry yeasts (GSH-IDY) are purported to accumulate glutathione intracellularly and then released into the must. Glutathione is beneficial for wine quality, but research has highlighted that GSH-IDYs have a synergic antioxidant effect similar to that of molecular GSH. Combination of negative mode ultrahigh-resolution Fourrier-Transform Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance Mass Spectrometry ((-)FT-ICR-MS), ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a Quadrupole-Time of Flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS) and HPLC/Diode Detector Array (DAD)-Fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to three inactivated dry yeasts soluble fractions, with increasing intracellular glutathione concentration, in order to explore the chemical diversity released in different synthetic media.Using the mean of size exclusion chromatography/DAD and fluorescence detection we report than most of the signals detected were below the 5-75 kDa-calibrated region of the chromatogram, indicating that most of the soluble protein fraction is composed of low molecular weight soluble peptides. In light of these results, high resolution mass spectrometry was used to scan and annotate the low molecular weight compounds from 50 to 1500 Da and showed that GSH level of enrichment in IDYs was correlated to a discriminant chemical diversity of the corresponding soluble fractions. Our results clearly show an impact of the GSH accumulation process not only visible on the glutathione itself, but also on the global diversity of compounds. Within the 1674 ions detected by (-)FT-ICR-MS, the ratio of annotated elemental formulas containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur (CHONS) to annotated elemental formulas containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (CHO) increased from 0.2 to 2.1 with the increasing levels of IDYs GSH content and 36 unique CHONS annotated formulas were unique to the IDY with the highest concentration of GSH. Amongst the 1674 detected ions 193 were annotated as potential peptides (from 2 to 5 residues), 61 ions were annotated as unique amino acid combinations and 46% of which being significantly more intense in GSH-rich IDY. Thus, the process leading to the accumulation of glutathione also involves other metabolic pathways which contribute to an increase in CHONS containing compounds potentially released in wine, notably peptides.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Mass Spectrometry ; Wine ; Oenology ; Untargeted Analysis; Antioxidant Activity; Mass-spectra; Amino-acids; Classification; Expression; Stability; Proteins; Network; Impact; Thiols
Institute(s) Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry (BGC)