Background: Over 100 million people worldwide suffer from birch pollen allergy. Bet v 1 has been identified as the major birch pollen allergen. However, the molecular mechanisms of birch allergic sensitization, including the roles of Bet v 1 and other components of the birch pollen extract, remain incompletely understood. Here, we examined how known birch pollen–derived molecules influence the endolysosomal processing of Bet v 1, thereby shaping its allergenicity. Methods: We analyzed the biochemical and immunological interaction of ligands with Bet v 1. We then investigated the proteolytic processing of Bet v 1 by endosomal extracts in the presence and absence of ligands, followed by a detailed kinetic analysis of Bet v 1 processing by individual endolysosomal proteases as well as the T-cell epitope presentation in BMDCs. Results: We identified E1 phytoprostanes as novel Bet v 1 ligands. Pollen-derived ligands enhanced the proteolytic resistance of Bet v 1, affecting degradation kinetics and preferential cleavage sites of the endolysosomal proteases cathepsin S and legumain. E1 phytoprostanes exhibited a dual role by stabilizing Bet v 1 and inhibiting cathepsin protease activity. Conclusion: Bet v 1 can serve as a transporter of pollen-derived, bioactive compounds. When carried to the endolysosome, such compounds can modulate the proteolytic activity, including its processing by cysteine cathepsins. We unveil a paradigm shift from an allergen-centered view to a more systemic view that includes the host endolysosomal enzymes.