How the age-associated decline of immune function leads to increased cancer incidence is poorly understood. Here, we have characterised the cellular composition of the gamma delta T-cell pool in peripheral lymph nodes (pLNs) upon ageing. We find that ageing has minimal cell-intrinsic effects on function and global gene expression of gamma delta T cells, and gamma delta TCR diversity remains stable. However, ageing alters TCR delta chain usage and clonal structure of gamma delta T-cell subsets. Importantly, IL-17-producing gamma delta 17 T cells dominate the gamma delta T-cell pool of aged mice-mainly due to the selective expansion of V gamma 6(+) gamma delta 17 T cells and augmented gamma delta 17 polarisation of V gamma 4(+) T cells. Expansion of the gamma delta 17 T-cell compartment is mediated by increased IL-7 expression in the T-cell zone of old mice. In a Lewis lung cancer model, pro-tumourigenic V gamma 6(+) gamma delta 17 T cells are exclusively activated in the tumour-draining LN and their infiltration into the tumour correlates with increased tumour size in aged mice. Thus, upon ageing, substantial compositional changes in gamma delta T-cell pool in the pLN lead to an unbalanced gamma delta T-cell response in the tumour that is associated with accelerated tumour growth.