BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. As a result, a full understanding of the factors influencing dyslipidemia is urgently necessary. Bile acids have been recognized as regulators of lipid metabolism, and neutral sterols may influence serum lipid levels. Therefore, this analysis was conducted to better understand the relationship between bile acids, neutral sterols, and dyslipidemia. METHODS: We examined cross-sectional associations between selected fecal metabolites and serum lipids or markers of dyslipidemia in 1387 participants of the KORA FF4 study using linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: We found positive associations between fecal bile acids and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol, triglycerides and markers of dyslipidemia, though associations were seen most consistently with triglycerides and hypertriglyceridemia. We also found positive associations between fecal cholesterol and serum LDL-c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, hypertriglyceridemia and high serum total cholesterol, though only associations with triglycerides or hypertriglyceridemia remained significant after applying the Bonferroni correction. Unexpectedly, several fecal plant sterols were positively associated with serum lipids and the associated markers of dyslipidemia. However, many of these associations were no longer statistically significant after adjusting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide insight into the role that bile acids may play in the development or progression of dyslipidemia. However, further confirmation of these results is warranted. Longitudinal and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms behind these associations and to determine causality.