The task of determining the geometry of a cone-beam CT scanner with flat panel detector and circular/spiral source trajectory is considered. Accomplishing this task implies analyzing projections of a set of points referred to as calibrating set or calibrating phantom. We take advantage of the fact that observed coordinates of a point's projection are rational functions of the point's location. Unknown coefficients of these functions can be recovered exactly from six projections of the point. Location of the source as well as position and orientation of the detector are determined in the scanner reference frame, which is constituted by rotation axis and central plane of the scanner. Two different projections of a calibrating set are enough to solve the task if the source trajectory is a circle. In applications where a shift of an object transversally to the central plane is required, two additional projections have to be collected in order to identify the direction of the shift. The developed formalism becomes especially simple when the detector is aligned with the rotation axis. In this case four projections of a single calibrating point rotated successfully about the rotation axis are sufficient. The error analysis carried out in the paper shows that the magnitude of deviation from the true values is of the order of the magnitude of measurement errors.