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First days in the life of naïve human B-lymphocytes infected with Epstein-Barr Virus.

mBio 10:e01723-19 (2019)
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Open Access Gold
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects and activates resting human B lymphocytes, reprograms them, induces their proliferation, and establishes a latent infection in them. In established EBV-infected cell lines, many viral latent genes are expressed. Their roles in supporting the continuous proliferation of EBV-infected B cells in vitro are known, but their functions in the early, prelatent phase of infection have not been investigated systematically. In studies during the first 8 days of infection using derivatives of EBV with mutations in single genes of EBVs, we found only Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) to be essential for activating naive human B lymphocytes, inducing their growth in cell volume, driving them into rapid cell divisions, and preventing cell death in a subset of infected cells. EBNA-LP, latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A), and the viral microRNAs have supportive, auxiliary functions, but mutants of LMP1, EBNA3A, EBNA3C, and the noncoding Epstein-Barr virus with small RNA (EBERs) had no discernible phenotype compared with wild-type EBV. B cells infected with a double mutant of EBNA3A and 3C had an unexpected proliferative advantage and did not regulate the DNA damage response (DDR) of the infected host cell in the prelatent phase. Even EBNA1, which has very critical long-term functions in maintaining and replicating the viral genomic DNA in established cell lines, was dispensable for the early activation of infected cells. Our findings document that the virus dose is a decisive parameter and indicate that EBNA2 governs the infected cells initially and implements a strictly controlled temporal program independent of other viral latent genes. It thus appears that EBNA2 is sufficient to control all requirements for clonal cellular expansion and to reprogram human B lymphocytes from energetically quiescent to activated cells.IMPORTANCE The preferred target of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is human resting B lymphocytes. We found that their infection induces a well-coordinated, time-driven program that starts with a substantial increase in cell volume, followed by cellular DNA synthesis after 3 days and subsequent rapid rounds of cell divisions on the next day accompanied by some DNA replication stress (DRS). Two to 3 days later, the cells decelerate and turn into stably proliferating lymphoblast cell lines. With the aid of 16 different recombinant EBV strains, we investigated the individual contributions of EBV's multiple latent genes during early B-cell infection and found that many do not exert a detectable phenotype or contribute little to EBV's prelatent phase. The exception is EBNA2 that is essential in governing all aspects of B-cell reprogramming. EBV relies on EBNA2 to turn the infected B lymphocytes into proliferating lymphoblasts preparing the infected host cell for the ensuing stable, latent phase of viral infection. In the early steps of B-cell reprogramming, viral latent genes other than EBNA2 are dispensable, but some, EBNA-LP, for example, support the viral program and presumably stabilize the infected cells once viral latency is established.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords B Lymphocytes ; Human Herpesviruses ; Reprogramming ; Transformation; Ebv Nuclear Antigen-1; Membrane-protein 2a; Growth Transformation; Dna-replication; Cell-line; In-vitro; H2ax Phosphorylation; Histone H2ax; C-myc; Immortalization
ISSN (print) / ISBN 2150-7511
e-ISSN 2150-7511
Journal mBio
Quellenangaben Volume: 10, Issue: 5, Pages: , Article Number: e01723-19 Supplement: ,
Publisher American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Publishing Place 1752 N St Nw, Washington, Dc 20036-2904 Usa
Reviewing status Peer reviewed