The functional roles of the Caudate nucleus (Cd) are well known. Selective Cd lesions can be found in neurological disorders. However, little is known about the dynamics of the behavioral changes during progressive Cd ablation. Current stereotactic radiosurgery technologies allow the progressive ablation of a brain region with limited adverse effects in surrounding normal tissues. This could be of high interest for the study of the modified behavioral functions in relation with the degree of impairment of the brain structures. Using hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy combined with synchrotron microbeam radiation, we investigated, during one year after irradiation, the effects of unilateral radio-ablation of the right Cd on the behavior of Yucatan minipigs. The right Cd was irradiated to a minimal dose of 35.5 Gy delivered in three fractions. MRI-based morphological brain integrity and behavioral functions, i.e. locomotion, motivation/hedonism were assessed. We detected a progressive radionecrosis leading to a quasi-total ablation one year after irradiation, with an additional alteration of surrounding areas. Transitory changes in the motivation/hedonism were firstly detected, then on locomotion, suggesting the influence of different compensatory mechanisms depending on the functions related to Cd and possibly some surrounding areas. We concluded that early behavioral changes related to eating functions are relevant markers for the early detection of ongoing lesions occurring in Cd-related neurological disorders.