Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of necrotic cell death marked by oxidative damage to phospholipids(1,2). To date, ferroptosis has been thought to be controlled only by the phospholipid hydroperoxide-reducing enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4)(3,4) and radical-trapping antioxidants(5,6). However, elucidation of the factors that underlie the sensitivity of a given cell type to ferroptosis(7) is crucial to understand the pathophysiological role of ferroptosis and how it may be exploited for the treatment of cancer. Although metabolic constraints(8) and phospholipid composition(9,10) contribute to ferroptosis sensitivity, no cell-autonomous mechanisms have been identified that account for the resistance of cells to ferroptosis. Here we used an expression cloning approach to identify genes in human cancer cells that are able to complement the loss of GPX4. We found that the flavoprotein apoptosis-inducing factor mitochondria-associated 2 (AIFM2) is a previously unrecognized anti-ferroptotic gene. AIFM2, which we renamed ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (FSP1) and which was initially described as a pro-apoptotic gene(11), confers protection against ferroptosis elicited by GPX4 deletion. We further demonstrate that the suppression of ferroptosis by FSP1 is mediated by ubiquinone (also known as coenzyme Q(10), CoQ(10)): the reduced form, ubiquinol, traps lipid peroxyl radicals that mediate lipid peroxidation, whereas FSP1 catalyses the regeneration of CoQ(10) using NAD(P)H. Pharmacological targeting of FSP1 strongly synergizes with GPX4 inhibitors to trigger ferroptosis in a number of cancer entities. In conclusion, the FSP1-CoQ(10)-NAD(P)H pathway exists as a stand-alone parallel system, which co-operates with GPX4 and glutathione to suppress phospholipid peroxidation and ferroptosis.