The present study describes the geographically isolated Pomak population and its particular dietary patterns in relationship to cardiovascular risk factors. We collected a population-based cohort in a cross-sectional study, with detailed anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and lifestyle parameter information. Dietary patterns were derived through principal component analysis based on a validated food-frequency questionnaire, administered to 1702 adult inhabitants of the Pomak villages on the Rhodope mountain range in Greece. A total of 69.9% of the participants were female with a population mean age of 44.9 years; 67% of the population were overweight or obese with a significantly different prevalence for obesity between men and women (17.5% vs. 37.5%, respectively, p < 0.001). Smoking was more prevalent in men (45.8% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001), as 97.3% of women had never smoked. Four dietary patterns emerged as characteristic of the population, and were termed "high in sugars", "quick choices", "balanced", and "homemade". Higher adherence to the "high in sugars" dietary pattern was associated with increased glucose levels (p < 0.001) and increased risk of hypertension (OR (95% CI) 2.61 (1.55, 4.39), p < 0.001) and nominally associated with high blood glucose levels (OR (95% CI) 1.85 (1.11, 3.08), p = 0.018), compared to lower adherence. Overall, we characterize the dietary patterns of the Pomak population and describe associations with cardiovascular risk factors.