PuSH - Publication Server of Helmholtz Zentrum München

Ziegler, A.-G. ; Kick, K. ; Bonifacio, E. ; Haupt, F. ; Hippich, M. ; Dunstheimer, D.* ; Lang, M.* ; Laub, O.* ; Warncke, K.* ; Lange, K.* ; Assfalg, R. ; Jolink, M. ; Winkler, C. ; Achenbach, P.

Yield of a public health screening of children for islet autoantibodies in Bavaria, Germany.

JAMA 323, 339-351 (2020)
DOI Order publishers version
Open Access Green as soon as Postprint is submitted to ZB.
Importance: Public health screening for type 1 diabetes in its presymptomatic stages may reduce disease severity and burden on a population level. Objective: To determine the prevalence of presymptomatic type 1 diabetes in children participating in a public health screening program for islet autoantibodies and the risk for progression to clinical diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Screening for islet autoantibodies was offered to children aged 1.75 to 5.99 years in Bavaria, Germany, between 2015 and 2019 by primary care pediatricians during well-baby visits. Families of children with multiple islet autoantibodies (presymptomatic type 1 diabetes) were invited to participate in a program of diabetes education, metabolic staging, assessment of psychological stress associated with diagnosis, and prospective follow-up for progression to clinical diabetes until July 31, 2019. Exposures: Measurement of islet autoantibodies. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was presymptomatic type 1 diabetes, defined by 2 or more islet autoantibodies, with categorization into stages 1 (normoglycemia), 2 (dysglycemia), or 3 (clinical) type 1 diabetes. Secondary outcomes were the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis and parental psychological stress, assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (range, 0-27; higher scores indicate worse depression; ≤4 indicates no to minimal depression; >20 indicates severe depression). Results: Of 90 632 children screened (median [interquartile range {IQR}] age, 3.1 [2.1-4.2] years; 48.5% girls), 280 (0.31%; 95% CI, 0.27-0.35) had presymptomatic type 1 diabetes, including 196 (0.22%) with stage 1, 17 (0.02%) with stage 2, 26 (0.03%) with stage 3, and 41 who were not staged. After a median (IQR) follow-up of 2.4 (1.0-3.2) years, another 36 children developed stage 3 type 1 diabetes. The 3-year cumulative risk for stage 3 type 1 diabetes in the 280 children with presymptomatic type 1 diabetes was 24.9% ([95% CI, 18.5%-30.7%]; 54 cases; annualized rate, 9.0%). Two children had diabetic ketoacidosis. Median (IQR) psychological stress scores were significantly increased at the time of metabolic staging in mothers of children with presymptomatic type 1 diabetes (3 [1-7]) compared with mothers of children without islet autoantibodies (2 [1-4]) (P = .002), but declined after 12 months of follow-up (2 [0-4]) (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Among children aged 2 to 5 years in Bavaria, Germany, a program of primary care-based screening showed an islet autoantibody prevalence of 0.31%. These findings may inform considerations of population-based screening of children for islet autoantibodies.
Altmetric
Additional Metrics?
Edit extra informations Login
Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Reviewing status
Institute(s) Institute of Diabetes Research Type 1 (IDF)
Institute for Pancreatic Beta Cell Research (IPI)