Inhaled nanoparticles constitute a potential health hazard due to their size-dependent lung deposition and large surface to mass ratio. Exposure to high levels contributes to the risk of developing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, as well as of lung cancer. Particle-induced acute phase response may be an important mechanism of action of particle-induced cardiovascular disease. Here, the authors review new important scientific evidence showing causal relationships between inhalation of particle and nanomaterials, induction of acute phase response, and risk of cardiovascular disease. Particle-induced acute phase response provides a means for risk assessment of particle-induced cardiovascular disease and underscores cardiovascular disease as an occupational disease.