Background: Persons with a migration background (PmM) as a population group usually differ from the autochthonous population in terms of morbidity, mortality, and use of the health care system, but they participate less frequently in health studies. The PmM group is very heterogeneous, which has hardly been taken into account in studies so far. Objectives: Sociodemographic characteristics of PmM in the NAKO health study (age, sex, time since migration, education) are presented. In addition, it is examined through an example whether migration background is related to the use of cancer screening for colorectal cancer (hemoccult test). Methods: Data of the first 101,816 persons of the NAKO were analyzed descriptively and cartographically. The migration background was assigned on the basis of the definition of the Federal Statistical Office, based on nationality, country of birth, year of entry, and country of birth of the parents. Results: Overall, the PmM proportion is 16.0%. The distribution across the 18 study centers varies considerably between 6% (Neubrandenburg) and 33% (Düsseldorf). With 153 countries of origin, most countries are represented in the NAKO. All variables show clear differences between the different regions of origin. In the hemoccult test, persons of Turkish origin (OR = 0.67) and resettlers (OR = 0.60) have a lower participation rate. PmM born in Germany do not differ in this respect from the autochthonous population (OR = 0.99). Conclusion: PmM in the NAKO are a very heterogeneous group. However, due to the sample size, individual subgroups of migrants can be studied separately with respect to region of origin.