The adrenal gland integrates catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine cells and steroid-producing cells with mesenchymal origin in a structured manner under one capsule and is a key regulator for vital bioactivity. In addition to adrenal-specific disease, dysregulation of adrenal hormones is associated with systemic effects, leading to undesirable metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technique can simultaneously measure a broad range of biomolecules, including metabolites and hormones, which has enabled the study of tissue metabolic and hormone alterations in adrenal and adrenal-related diseases. Furthermore, this technique coupled with labeled immunohistochemistry staining has enabled the study of the pathophysiological adaptation of the adrenal gland under normal and abnormal conditions at different molecular levels. This review discusses the recent applications of in situ MSI in the adrenal gland. For example, the combination of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue microarray and MSI to tissues from patient cohorts has facilitated the discovery of clinically relevant prognostic biomolecules and generated promising hypotheses for new sights into physiology and pathophysiology of adrenal gland. MSI also has enabled the discovery of clinically significant tissue molecular (i. e., biomarker) and pathway changes in adrenal disease, particularly in adrenal tumors. In addition, MSI has advanced the ability to optimally identify and detect adrenal gland specific molecules. Thus, as a novel analytical methodology, MSI has provided unprecedented capabilities for in situ tissue study.