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Innate immune recognition and modulation in hepatitis D virus infection.

World J. Gastroenterol. 26, 2781-2791 (2020)
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Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a global health threat with more than 15 million humans affected. Current treatment options are largely unsatisfactory leaving chronically infected humans at high risk to develop liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HDV is the only human satellite virus known. It encodes only two proteins, and requires Hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope protein expression for productive virion release and spread of the infection. How HDV could evolve and why HBV was selected as a helper virus remains unknown. Since the discovery of Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide as the essential uptake receptor for HBV and HDV, we are beginning to understand the interactions of HDV and the immune system. While HBV is mostly regarded a stealth virus, that escapes innate immune recognition, HBV-HDV coinfection is characterized by a strong innate immune response. Cytoplasmic RNA sensor melanoma differentiation antigen 5 has been reported to recognize HDV RNA replication and activate innate immunity. Innate immunity, however, seems not to impair HDV replication while it inhibits HBV. In this review, we describe what is known up-to-date about the interplay between HBV as a helper and HDV's immune evasion strategy and identify where additional research is required.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Review
Schlagwörter Hepatitis D Virus ; Hepatitis B Virus ; Innate Immunity ; Pathogen-associated Molecular Pattern Molecules ; Immune Evasion ; Immunosuppression; Endoplasmic-reticulum Stress; B-virus; Delta-virus; Interferon-alpha; X Protein; Rig-i; Human Hepatocytes; Hdv Replication; Rna Replication; Liver-cells
ISSN (print) / ISBN 1007-9327
e-ISSN 2219-2840
Quellenangaben Band: 26, Heft: 21, Seiten: 2781-2791 Artikelnummer: , Supplement: ,
Verlag WJG Press
Verlagsort 7041 Koll Center Parkway, Suite 160, Pleasanton, Ca, United States
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed