Photosynthesis is the major process leading to primary production in the Biosphere. There is a total of 7000bn tons of CO(2)in the atmosphere and photosynthesis fixes more than 100bn tons annually. The CO(2)assimilated by the photosynthetic apparatus is the basis of crop production and, therefore, of animal and human food. This has led to a renewed interest in photosynthesis as a target to increase plant production and there is now increasing evidence showing that the strategy of improving photosynthetic traits can increase plant yield. However, photosynthesis and the photosynthetic apparatus are both conditioned by environmental variables such as water availability, temperature, [CO2], salinity, and ozone. The "omics" revolution has allowed a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms regulating stress responses including the identification of genes and proteins involved in the regulation, acclimation, and adaptation of processes that impact photosynthesis. The development of novel non-destructive high-throughput phenotyping techniques has been important to monitor crop photosynthetic responses to changing environmental conditions. This wealth of data is being incorporated into new modeling algorithms to predict plant growth and development under specific environmental constraints. This review gives a multi-perspective description of the impact of changing environmental conditions on photosynthetic performance and consequently plant growth by briefly highlighting how major technological advances including omics, high-throughput photosynthetic measurements, metabolic engineering, and whole plant photosynthetic modeling have helped to improve our understanding of how the photosynthetic machinery can be modified by different abiotic stresses and thus impact crop production.