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Transcriptome analysis of nitrate assimilation in Aspergillus nidulans reveals connections to nitric oxide metabolism.
Mol. Microbiol. 78, 720-738 (2010)
P>Nitrate is a dominant form of inorganic nitrogen (N) in soils and can be efficiently assimilated by bacteria, fungi and plants. We studied here the transcriptome of the short-term nitrate response using assimilating and non-assimilating strains of the model ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans. Among the 72 genes positively responding to nitrate, only 18 genes carry binding sites for the pathway-specific activator NirA. Forty-five genes were repressed by nitrate metabolism. Because nirA- strains are N-starved at nitrate induction conditions, we also compared the nitrate transcriptome with N-deprived conditions and found a partial overlap of differentially regulated genes between these conditions. Nitric oxide (NO)-metabolizing flavohaemoglobins were found to be co-regulated with nitrate assimilatory genes. Subsequent molecular characterization revealed that the strongly inducible FhbA is required for full activity of nitrate and nitrite reductase enzymes. The co-regulation of NO-detoxifying and nitrate/nitrite assimilating systems may represent a conserved mechanism, which serves to neutralize nitrosative stress imposed by an external NO source in saprophytic and pathogenic fungi. Our analysis using membrane-permeable NO donors suggests that signalling for NirA activation only indirectly depends on the nitrate transporters NrtA (CrnA) and NrtB (CrnB).
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords GATA FACTOR AREA; NITROSATIVE STRESS; NITROGEN REGULATION; FILAMENTOUS FUNGI; NUCLEAR EXPORT; IN-VIVO; GENE; REDUCTASE; EXPRESSION; TRANSPORT