With an estimated prevalence of 463 million affected, type 2 diabetes represents a major challenge to health care systems worldwide. Analyzing the plasma proteomes of individuals with type 2 diabetes may illuminate hitherto unknown functional mechanisms underlying disease pathology. We assessed the associations between type 2 diabetes and >1,000 plasma proteins in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 cohort (n = 993, 110 cases), with subsequent replication in the third wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3) cohort (n = 940, 149 cases). We computed logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension. Addition-ally, we investigated associations with incident type 2 diabetes and performed two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to prioritize our results. Association analysis of prevalent type 2 diabetes revealed 24 replicated proteins, of which 8 are novel. Proteins showing association with incident type 2 diabetes were aminoacylase-1, growth hormone receptor, and insulin-like growth factor–binding protein 2. Aminoacylase-1 was associated with both prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. MR analysis yielded nominally significant causal effects of type 2 diabetes on cathepsin Z and rennin, both known to have roles in the pathophysiological pathways of cardiovascular disease, and of sex hormone–binding globulin on type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, our high-throughput pro-teomics study replicated previously reported type 2 diabetes–protein associations and identified new candidate proteins possibly involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
GrantsQatar National Research Fund State of Bavaria Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung Biomedical Research Program at Weill Cornell Medicine in Qatar - Qatar Foundation Norwegian Ministry of Health Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet Norges Forskningsrad Helse Midt-Norge Nord-Trondelag County Council Norwegian Institute of Public Health Deutsches Zentrum für Herz-Kreislaufforschung National Institutes of Health Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen -German Research Center for Environmental Health - German Federal Ministry of Education and Research