Purpose Diet is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. Here, we aim to identify dietary patterns and to investigate their association with prediabetes, undetected diabetes and prevalent diabetes. Methods The present study included 1305 participants of the cross-sectional population-based KORA FF4 study. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) measurements together with a physician-confirmed diagnosis allowed for an accurate categorization of the participants according to their glucose tolerance status into normal glucose tolerance (n = 698), prediabetes (n = 459), undetected diabetes (n = 49), and prevalent diabetes (n = 99). Dietary patterns were identified through principal component analysis followed by hierarchical clustering. The association between dietary patterns and glucose tolerance status was investigated using multinomial logistic regression models. Results A Prudent pattern, characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fruits, wholegrains and dairy products, and a Western pattern, characterized by high consumption of red and processed meat, alcoholic beverages, refined grains and sugar-sweetened beverages, were identified. Participants following the Western pattern had significantly higher chances of having prediabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35, 2.73), undetected diabetes (OR 10.12; 95% CI 4.19, 24.43) or prevalent diabetes (OR 3.51; 95% CI 1.85, 6.67), compared to participants following the Prudent pattern. Conclusion To our knowledge, the present study is one of the few investigating the association between dietary patterns and prediabetes or undetected diabetes. The use of a reference group exclusively including participants with normal glucose tolerance might explain the strong associations observed in our study. These results suggest a very important role of dietary habits in the prevention of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.
GrantsProjekt DEAL German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) German Federal Ministry of Health Ministry of Culture and Science of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia Munich Center of Health Sciences (MC-Health), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, as part of LMUinnovativ State of Bavaria Helmholtz Zentrum MunchenGerman Research Center for Environmental Health - German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office