Purpose: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a fatal disease with poor prognosis. Amembrane-bound form of Hsp70 (mHsp70) which is selectively expressed on high-risk tumors serves as a target for mHsp70-targeting natural killer (NK) cells. Patients with advanced mHsp70-positive NSCLC may therefore benefit from a therapeutic intervention involving mHsp70-targeting NK cells. The randomized phase II clinical trial (EudraCT2008-002130-30) explores tolerability and efficacy of ex vivo-activated NK cells in patients with NSCLC after radiochemotherapy (RCT).Patients and Methods: Patients with unresectable, mHsp70-positive NSCLC (stage IIIa/b) received 4 cycles of autologous NK cells activated ex vivo with TKD/IL2 [interventional arm (INT)] after RCT (60-70 Gy, platinum-based chemotherapy) or RCT alone [control arm (CTRL)]. The primary objective was progression-free survival (PFS), and secondary objectives were the assessment of quality of life (QoL, QLQ-LC13), toxicity, and immunobiological responses.Results: The NK-cell therapy after RCT was well tolerated, and no differences in QoL parameters between the two study arms were detected. Estimated 1-year probabilities for PFS were 67% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19%-90%] for the INT arm and 33% (95% CI, 5%-68%) for the CTRL arm (P = 0.36, 1-sided logrank test). Clinical responses in the INT group were associated with an increase in the prevalence of activated NK cells in their peripheral blood.Conclusions: Ex vivo TKD/IL2-activated, autologous NK cells are well tolerated and deliver positive clinical responses in patients with advanced NSCLC after RCT.