Maintenance of cellular redox control is pivotal for normal cellular functions and cell fate decisions including cell death. Among the key cellular redox systems in mammals, the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) family of proteins is the largest conferring multifaceted functions and affecting virtually all cellular processes. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident GPXs, designated as GPX7 and GPX8, are the most recently added members of this family of enzymes. Recent studies have provided exciting insights how both enzymes support critical processes of the ER including oxidative protein folding, maintenance of ER redox control by eliminating H2O2, and preventing palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity. Consequently, numerous pathological conditions, such as neurodegeneration, cancer and metabolic diseases have been linked with altered GPX7 and GPX8 expression. Studies in mice have demonstrated that loss of GPX7 leads to increased differentiation of preadipocytes, increased tumorigenesis and shortened lifespan. By contrast, GPX8 deficiency in mice results in enhanced caspase-4/11 activation and increased endotoxic shock in colitis model. With the increasing recognition that both types of enzymes are dysregulated in various tumor entities in man, we deem a review of the emerging roles played by GPX7 and GPX8 in health and disease development timely and appropriate.
GrantsMinistry of Science and Higher Education of The Russian Federation Helmholtz Validation Fund German FederalMinistry of Education and Research (BMBF) VIP+ program NEUROPROTEKT Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) SPP 1710