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Steinhoff, K.G.* ; Krause, K.* ; Linder, N.* ; Rullmann, M.* ; Volke, L.* ; Gebhardt, C. ; Busse, H.* ; Stumvoll, M. ; Blüher, M. ; Sabri, O.* ; Hesse, S.* ; Tönjes, A.*

Effects of hyperthyroidism on adipose tissue activity and distribution in adults.

Thyroid 31, 519-527 (2021)
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Open Access Green as soon as Postprint is submitted to ZB.
Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) has provided evidence that adult humans retain metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots. Thyroid hormones (TH) stimulate BAT thermogenesis by central and peripheral mechanisms. However, the effect of hyperthyroidism on BAT activity and BAT volume in humans is yet not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TH on (i) the metabolic activity of brown and white adipose tissue (WAT) depots, (ii) on abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue area, and (iii) on serum levels of metabolically active cytokines. Methods: Nineteen patients with overt hyperthyroidism were investigated through repeated 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (2-[18F]FDG PET/CT) in the hyperthyroid and in the euthyroid state. The 2-[18F]FDG uptake was calculated as standard uptake ratio with blood pool as reference. Fat areas were quantified by means of CT segmentation. Serum levels of fetuin A and B, fibroblast growth factor 21, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP), retinol-binding protein 4, pro-enkephalin, pro-neurotensin, and neuregulin 4 were determined in the hyperthyroid and in the euthyroid state for each subject. Results: 2-[18F]FDG uptake was increased in the hyperthyroid state in BAT in comparison with the euthyroid phase (p = 0.001). There was no correlation between serum free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels and 2-[18F]FDG uptake in BAT or WAT. In the hyperthyroid state, fT3 levels were positively associated with skeletal muscle standardized uptake value ratios. Areas of visceral adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were significantly decreased in hyperthyroidism. AFABP levels correlated positively with fT3 (p = 0.031, β = 0.28) and fT4 (p = 0.037, β = 0.27) in the hyperthyroid state. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the contribution of increased TH levels to the glucose uptake of BAT and WAT is low compared with that of the skeletal muscle. Hyperthyroid subjects have reduced areas of visceral adipose tissue and increased AFABP levels.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Adipokines ; Brown Adipose Tissue ; Computed Tomography ; Fluordesoxyglucose ; Hyperthyroidism ; Positron Emission Tomography ; Thyroid Dysfunction ; White Adipose Tissue; Fetuin-a Levels; Thyroid-hormone; Brown Fat; Thermogenesis; Steatosis
ISSN (print) / ISBN 1050-7256
e-ISSN 1557-9077
Journal Thyroid
Quellenangaben Volume: 31, Issue: 3, Pages: 519-527 Article Number: , Supplement: ,
Publisher Mary Ann Liebert
Publishing Place 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Fl, New Rochelle, Ny 10801 Usa
Reviewing status Peer reviewed
Institute(s) Helmholtz Institute for Metabolism, Obesity and Vascular Research (HI-MAG)
Grants Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Germany
German Diabetes Stiftung
German Research Foundation