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Chromatin-associated membraneless organelles in regulation of cellular differentiation.

Stem Cell Rep. 15, 1220-1232 (2020)
Publ. Version/Full Text DOI
Open Access Gold
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Membrane-free intracellular biocondensates are enclosures of proteins and nucleic acids that form by phase separation. Extensive ensembles of nuclear “membraneless organelles” indicate their involvement in genome regulation. Indeed, nuclear bodies have been linked to regulation of gene expression by formation of condensates made of chromatin and RNA processing factors. Important questions pertain to the involvement of membraneless organelles in determining cell identity through their cell-type-specific composition and function. Paraspeckles provide a prism to these questions because they exhibit striking cell-type-specific patterns and since they are crucial in embryogenesis. Here, we outline known interactions between paraspeckles and chromatin, and postulate how such interactions may be important in regulation of cell fate transitions. Moreover, we propose long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as candidates for similar regulation because many form foci that resemble biocondensates and exhibit dynamic patterns during differentiation. Finally, we outline approaches that could ascertain how chromatin-associated membraneless organelles regulate cellular differentiation. In this review, Drukker and colleagues describe emerging roles of nuclear membraneless organelles in chromatin and how they affect development. Based on studies of stem cells, they describe primarily the roles of a key form of membraneless organelles, named paraspeckles, and the roles that lncRNAs might play in the phase separation of membraneless organelles in the chromatin during development.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Review
Keywords Biocondensates ; Chromatin ; Differentiation ; Lncrna ; Membraneless Organelles ; Neat1 ; Paraspeckles ; Phase Separation ; Pluripotent Stem Cells ; Rna-binding Protein; Long Noncoding Rna; Liquid Phase-separation; Pluripotency; Protein; Neat1; Lncrna; Size; Transcription; Organization; Paraspeckles
ISSN (print) / ISBN 2213-6711
Quellenangaben Volume: 15, Issue: 6, Pages: 1220-1232 Article Number: , Supplement: ,
Publisher Cell Press
Publishing Place Maryland Heights, MO
Reviewing status Peer reviewed
Grants Volkswagen Foundation