The study investigates the spatial pattern of black carbon (BC) at a high spatial resolution in Augsburg, Germany. Sixty two walks were performed to assess the concentrations of equivalent black carbon (eBC), ultraviolet particulate matter (UVPM), and equivalent brown carbon (eBrC) in different seasons and at different times of the day with a mobile platform (i.e., trolley). Along with BC measurements, images of street microenvironments were recorded. Meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed, were monitored. The BC concentrations showed significant spatial heterogeneity and diurnal variations peaking in the morning and at night. The highest BC concentrations were observed near dense traffic. The correlations between BC and street views (buildings, roads, cars, and vegetation) were weak but highly significant. Moreover, meteorological factors also influenced the BC concentration. A model based on street view images and meteorological data was developed to examine the driving factors of the spatial variability of BC concentrations at a higher spatial resolution as different microenvironments based on traffic density. The best results were obtained for UVPM and eBC (71 and 70% explained variability). eBrC (53%), to which other sources besides road traffic can also make significant contributions, is modeled less well.
FörderungenSupport Project of High-Level Teachers in Beijing Municipal Universities in the Period of 13th Five-Year Plan China Scholarship Council (CSC) under the State Scholarship Fund Germany Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) as part of SmartAQnet Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China