Background: Obesity is a stigmatized disease. Patients are devaluated and disadvantaged by the general population and also in the healthcare system. Objective: Summary of the literature on the consequences of stigmatization and discrimination of patients with obesity and augmented by the results of a recent survey of women with obesity. Methods: Literature search, descriptive and inference statistical analyses in a representative German sample of n = 500 women with obesity. Results: Weight-based stigmatization and discrimination are more often reported by women. These experiences are associated with negative consequences that can contribute to perpetuating the disease. Patients can also internalize negative stereotypes. Patients with a higher body mass index (BMI) report weight-based stigmatization more often, even in the healthcare setting. The self-perception of weight is particularly inaccurate in patients with severity class I obesity (BMI 30–34.9 kg/m2). Conclusion: The elevated prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with obesity can partly be attributed to weight-based stigmatization. Stigmatization and the subsequent internalized stigma need to be sensitively addressed especially in the setting of psychotherapy.