Extracellular RNAs present in biofluids have emerged as potential biomarkers for disease. Where most studies focus on blood-derived fluids, other biofluids may be more informative. We present an atlas of messenger, circular, and small RNA transcriptomes of a comprehensive collection of 20 human biofluids. By means of synthetic spike-in controls, we compare RNA content across biofluids, revealing a 10,000-fold difference in concentration. The circular RNA fraction is increased in most biofluids compared to tissues. Each biofluid transcriptome is enriched for RNA molecules derived from specific tissues and cell types. Our atlas enables an informed selection of the most relevant biofluid to monitor particular diseases. To verify the biomarker potential in these biofluids, four validation cohorts representing a broad spectrum of diseases were profiled, revealing numerous differential RNAs between case and control subjects. Spike-normalized data are publicly available in the R2 web portal for further exploration.
FörderungenNCI (Exploring Cancer Medicine for Sarcoma and Rare Cancers) Special Research Fund (BOF) scholarships of Ghent University Ghent University "Kom Op Tegen Kanker"(Stand Up To Cancer, the Flemish cancer society) Czech Ministry of Health NHGRI Fund for Scientific Research Flanders (FWO)