Sulfur metabolism and sulfur-containing metabolites play an important role in the human digestive system, and sulfur compounds and pathways are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In fact, cysteine metabolism results in the production of taurine and sulfate, and gut microbes catabolize them into hydrogen sulfide, a signaling molecule with various biological functions. Besides metabolites originating from sulfur metabolism, several other sulfur-containing metabolites of different classes were detected in human feces, consisting of non-volatile and volatile compounds. Sulfated steroids and bile acids such as taurine-conjugated bile acids are the major classes along with sulfur amino acids and sulfur-containing peptides. Indeed, sulfur-containing metabolites were described in stool samples from healthy subjects, patients suffering from colorectal cancer or IBD. In metabolomics-driven studies, around 50 known sulfur-containing metabolites were linked to IBD. Taurine, taurocholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, methionine, methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide were regularly reported in IBD studies, and most of them were elevated in stool samples from IBD patients. We summarized from this review that there is strong interplay between perturbed gut microbiota in IBD, and the consistently higher abundance of sulfur-containing metabolites, which potentially represent substrates for sulfidogenic bacteria such as Bilophila or Escherichia and promote their growth. These bacteria might shift their metabolism towards the degradation of taurine and cysteine and therefore to a higher hydrogen sulfide production.