Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key mediators of peripheral self-tolerance and alterations in their frequencies, stability, and function have been linked to autoimmunity. The antigen-specific induction of Tregs is a long-envisioned goal for the treatment of autoimmune diseases given reduced side effects compared to general immunosuppressive therapies. However, the translation of antigen-specific Treg inducing therapies for the treatment or prevention of autoimmune diseases into the clinic remains challenging. In this mini review, we will discuss promising results for antigen-specific Treg therapies in allergy and specific challenges for such therapies in autoimmune diseases, with a focus on type 1 diabetes (T1D). We will furthermore discuss opportunities for antigen-specific Treg therapies in T1D, including combinatorial strategies and tissue-specific Treg targeting. Specifically, we will highlight recent advances in miRNA-targeting as a means to foster Tregs in autoimmunity. Additionally, we will discuss advances and perspectives of computational strategies for the detailed analysis of tissue-specific Tregs on the single-cell level.
FörderungenEFSD/JDRF/Lilly Programme on Type 1 Diabetes Research 2020 German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) Research Group at Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen Helmholtz Association Helmholtz Association under the joint research school "Munich School for Data Science Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen