The pediatric patients are in the growing stage with more dividing cells than adults. They are greater sensitive to the radiation dose undergoing computed tomography (CT) scanning. It is necessary and essential to assess the absorbed dose and effective dose to children. Monte Carlo simulation with computational phantoms is one of the most used methods for dose calculation in medical imaging and radiotherapy. Because of the vast change of the pediatric body with age increasing, many research groups developed series pediatric phantoms for various ages. However, most of the existing pediatric reference phantoms were developed based on Caucasian populations, which is not conformable to Chinese pediatric patients. The use of different phantoms can contribute a difference in the dose calculation. To assess the CT dose of Chinese pediatric patients more accurately, we developed the Chinese pediatric reference phantoms series, including the 3-month (CRC3m), 1-year-old (CRC01), 5-year-old (CRC05), 10-year-old (CRC10), 15-year-old male (CRCM15), and female (CRCF15) phantoms. Furthermore, we applied them to dose assessment of patients undergoing CT scanning. The GE LightSpeed 16 CT scanner was constructed and the paper presents the detailed process of phantoms development and the establishment of the CT dose database (with X-ray tube voltages of 120, 100, and 80 kVp, with collimators of 20, 10, and 5 mm width, with filters for head and body), compares our results with other results based on different phantoms, and analyzes the CT dose calculation results. It was found that the difference in phantoms' characteristics, organ masses, and positions had a significant impact on the CT dose calculation results. The maximum difference came up to 463% (gonads dose undergoing chest examinations). The results are helpful for the dose optimization of Chinese pediatric patients undergoing CT scanning. The developed phantoms could be applied in dose estimation of other medical modalities.