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Astrocyte gliotransmission in the regulation of systemic metabolism.

Metabolites 11:732 (2021)
Publ. Version/Full Text DOI
Open Access Gold
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Normal brain function highly relies on the appropriate functioning of astrocytes. These glial cells are strategically situated between blood vessels and neurons, provide significant substrate support to neuronal demand, and are sensitive to neuronal activity and energy-related molecules. Astrocytes respond to many metabolic conditions and regulate a wide array of physiological processes, including cerebral vascular remodeling, glucose sensing, feeding, and circadian rhythms for the control of systemic metabolism and behavior-related responses. This regulation ultimately elicits counterregulatory mechanisms in order to couple whole-body energy availability with brain function. Therefore, understanding the role of astrocyte crosstalk with neighboring cells via the release of molecules, e.g., gliotransmitters, into the parenchyma in response to metabolic and neuronal cues is of fundamental relevance to elucidate the distinct roles of these glial cells in the neuroendocrine control of metabolism. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying astrocyte-released gliotransmitters that have been reported to be crucial for maintaining homeostatic regulation of systemic metabolism.

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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Review
Keywords astrocytes; calcium signaling; energy balance; gliotransmission; systemic metabolism; Diazepam-binding Inhibitor; Nucleus-tractus-solitarius; Endothelial-growth-factor; Brain Energy-metabolism; Tonic Gaba Release; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus; Glutamate Release; Octadecaneuropeptide Odn; Vesicular Compartment; Synaptic-transmission
ISSN (print) / ISBN 2218-1989
e-ISSN 2218-1989
Journal Metabolites
Quellenangaben Volume: 11, Issue: 11, Pages: , Article Number: 732 Supplement: ,
Publisher MDPI
Publishing Place St Alban-anlage 66, Ch-4052 Basel, Switzerland
Reviewing status Peer reviewed
European Research Council ERC (CGC: STG grant AstroNeuroCrosstalk)