Background: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are considered as promising agents to increase the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. However, the biological mechanisms of radiation enhancement effects of AuNPs are still not well understood. We present a multi-scale Monte Carlo simulation framework within TOPAS-nBio to investigate the increase of DNA damage due to the presence of AuNPs in mouse tumor models. Methods: A tumor was placed inside a voxel mouse model and irradiated with either 100-kVp or 200-kVp X-ray beams. Phase spaces were employed to transfer particles from the macroscopic (voxel) scale to the microscopic scale, which consists of a cell geometry including a detailed mouse DNA model. Radiosensitizing effects were calculated in the presence and absence of hybrid nanoparticles with a Fe 2O 3 core surrounded by a gold layer (AuFeNPs). To simulate DNA damage even for very small energy tracks, Geant4-DNA physics and chemistry models were used on microscopic scale. Results: An AuFeNP-induced enhancement of both dose and DNA strand breaks has been established for different scenarios. Produced chemical radicals including hydroxyl molecules, which were assumed to be responsible for DNA damage through chemical reactions, were found to be significantly increased. We further observed a dependency of the results on the location of the cells within the tumor for 200-kVp X-ray beams. Conclusion: Our multi-scale approach allows to study irradiation-induced physical and chemical effects on cells. We showed a potential increase in cell radiosensitization caused by relatively small concentrations of AuFeNPs. Our new methodology allows the individual adjustment of parameters in each simulation step and therefore can be used for other studies investigating the radiosensitizing effects of AuFeNPs or AuNPs in living cells.